Many things need to be considered when choosing milk, especially milk for children. One of the main things that need to be looked at is the type of milk you want to buy. The types of milk are generally listed on the front of the milk label. Different types and names of milk can reflect various things, including: different forms (liquid, condensed or powder), manufacturing processes (pasteurization, UHT, sterilization, drying, thickening, fermentation, etc.), composition (source of milk, source of fat, bacterial culture used, etc.), allotment (general, children, infants, special medical needs), information on nutritional value (fat content, protein content, nonfat solid content, sugar content, vitamin levels, minerals and other nutrients), how to use (ready-to-drink or must be dissolved first with water), shelf life (just a few days, a few weeks, several months or can reach 1-2 years) and storage (room temperature or refrigerator). However, many consumers are still confused by the various types of milk.
In 2006, Badan Pengawas Obat dan Makanan or Food and Drug Administration of the Republic of Indonesia or (BPOM RI) has issued a guideline in the form of a decree concerning food categories for all food products marketed in Indonesia, including milk. In the Guidelines, food is grouped into 16 categories, and most types of milk (including liquid milk, powdered milk, flavored milk, fermented milk, evaporation milk and sweetened condensed milk) are classified into the food category 1, although some are included in the food category 13, including infant formulas, advanced formulas and formulas for special medical purposes.
The following is a description of some types of liquid (plain) products based on the definition of Food Category 1, namely 01.1.1.1 Milk (Plain):
Definition: Fluid from the udder of cows, buffaloes, horses, goats, sheep, and other milk-producing livestock is either fresh or heated through pasteurization, Ultra High Temperature (UHT) or sterilization.
Processed Foods: Milk is the raw material for various types of processed foods such as milk, drinks containing milk, fermented milk, yogurt, evaporation milk, sweetened condensed milk, cheese, ice cream, pudding, cake and so on.*
Nutritional content: Varies, depending on the source of livestock (cattle, goats, sheep and others), livestock varieties, animal feed, lactation time and the heating process. But in general, milk is an almost perfect source of nutrition because it contains almost all the essential nutrients needed by the body. The following is a comparison of the average nutritional content per 100 grams of cow, goat and buffalo milk (PERSAGI, 2009):
2. Fresh Milk
Definition: Fluid from the udders of cows, buffaloes, horses, goats, sheep, and other healthy milk-producing livestock obtained by proper milking and free of colostrum, whose natural content is not reduced or added to anything, has not received any treatment except cooling . Basic characteristics: • Milk fat levels not less than 3%; • Total non-fat solids not less than 8%;
Processed foods: Examples of processed foods that use fresh milk are raw cheese such as cottage cheese. There is not much processed food that uses fresh milk that has not been processed at all due to sanitation and food safety reasons. Generally milk used for processed food is milk that has gone through a heating process.
Advantages and disadvantages: The advantages of fresh milk are the best nutritional content compared to other types of milk that have been processed because the protein has not been denatured by heat, the fat has not been oxidized, as well as vitamins and other nutrients. But because it has not been processed, there is a high probability of microbial contamination, such as: Coliforms, Coxiella burnetti, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp, Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, etc. (Chambers, 2002) so it is not suitable for direct consumption especially for children.
3. Pasteurized milk
Definition: Liquid milk products obtained from fresh milk or reconstituted milk or recombined milk are heated by the High Temperature Short Time (HTST) method or the Holding method, and packaged immediately in sterile aseptic packaging. Basic characteristics: • Milk fat levels not less than 3%; • Total non-fat solids not less than 8%;
Processed foods: Pasteurized milk is generally sold in 1 Liter packaging. In addition, pasteurized milk is also commonly used as a raw material for various types of milk-based products as previously described (*).
Advantages and disadvantages: Pasteurization is a minimal heating process that removes pathogenic bacteria, so that nutritional damage is minimal compared to other processes and the flavor is also still fresh and delicious. But pasteurized milk is not durable, its shelf life in sealed packages is only about 2 weeks to a month and must be stored in a refrigerator (refrigerator) to avoid developing bacteria that can cause milk to become damaged.
4. UHT (Ultra High Temperature) Milk
Definition: Liquid milk products obtained from fresh milk or reconstituted milk or recombined milk are sterilized at a temperature not less than 135 ° C for 2 seconds and packaged immediately in a sterile aseptic package. Basic characteristics: • Milk fat levels not less than 3%; • Total non-fat solids not less than 8%.
Processed foods: UHT milk is generally consumed directly in RTD packaging (ready to drink) in boxes of various sizes (for example: 125 ml, 180 ml, 200 ml, 250 ml and 1 Liter). In addition, UHT milk is also commonly used as raw material for various types of milk-based products as previously described (*).
Advantages and disadvantages: UHT is a favorite liquid milk product because it is durable with minimal nutritional damage (because even though it is heated at high temperatures, but the time is very short), it lasts longer (there is even a shelf life of 1 year) and can be stored at room temperature (no need to put it in the refrigerator) as long as the package is still sealed tightly. If it has been opened, UHT milk must also be stored in the refrigerator and spent in a maximum of 4 days. However, it should be noted more about its composition because there are many UHT milk on the market that also use recombination milk and reconstitution (mixed with powdered milk) not only fresh milk, so that the nutritional value damage is not as minimal as UHT milk which is only processed from fresh milk. Generally UHT milk that uses powdered milk is also fortified with vitamins to replace the contents lost due to the heating process. The taste of UHT milk derived from fresh milk is generally also fresher and tastier.
5. Sterile Milk
Definition: Liquid milk products obtained from fresh milk or reconstituted milk or recombined milk which are heated at a temperature not less than 1000C for a sufficient amount of time to reach a commercial sterile state and hermetically packed. Basic characteristics: • Milk fat levels not less than 3%; • Total non-fat solids not less than 8%
Processed Foods: Sterile milk is generally packaged in bottles of various sizes (around 100 ml to 1 Liter) and is sometimes used as raw material for various types of milk-based products as previously described (*).
Advantages and disadvantages: As with UHT milk, sterile milk has a long shelf life (several months to 1 year) and can be stored at room temperature as long as the packaging has not been opened. However, damage to nutritional value due to warming is likely to be greater because of the longer heating time. It is also possible to detect “cook taste” (the taste of cooked milk) in sterile milk due to the heating process.
Chambers, J. V. 2002. The Microbiology of Raw Milk. In: Dairy Microbiology Handbook. 3rd Ed., R. K. Robinson, ed. Wiley-Interscience, A John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Publication, New York.
Peraturan Menteri Kesehatan RI Nomor 49 Tahun 2014 Tentang Standar Mutu Gizi, Pelabelan dan Periklanan Susu Formula Pertumbuhan dan Formula Pertumbuhan Anak Usia 1-3 tahun
Persatuan Ahli Gizi Indonesia (PERSAGI). 2009. Tabel Komposisi Pangan Indonesia (TKPI). PT Elex Media Komputindo. Gramedia. Jakarta.
Surat Keputusan Kepala BPOM RI No. HK 00.05.52.4040 tanggal 9 Oktober 2006 tentang Kategori Pangan.
Zulkarnain, MR. 2016. Mengetahui Jenis dan Nama Lain Susu dalam Label Pangan. Food For Kids Indonesia, June 2016 edition.