Based on The Regulation of Ministry of Industry in Indonesia no. 24/M-IND/PER/2/2010, the inclusion of the Food Grade Logo (Logo Tara Pangan) and recycling code of plastic packaging are mandatory for every plastic food packaging. Basically, there are two types of plastic which are:
- Thermoplastic resin: that can be deformed when heated
- Thermoset resin: only can be formed once.
Here are some types of plastic packaging for food and their characteristics:
- Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET)
Clear and transparent, strong, resistant to solvents, gas and waterproof, soften at 80oC. Commonly used for drinking bottle, cooking oil, soy sauce, chili sauce, medicines. Not recommended for any food >60oC and repeated used.
- High Density Polyethylene (HDPE)
Hard to semiflexible, resistant to chemical and moisture, gas permeable, waxy surface, opaque, easily coloured, processed and formed, soften at 75oC. Commonly used for liquid milk, juices, and other drinking bottles, shopping bags, medicines and plastic caps. Not recommended for repeated used.
- Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)
Difficult to recycle, more chemical proof, commonly used for soy sauce, chili sauce bottles, tray, and not recommended for food containing fat/oil, alcohol and hot food.
- Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE)
Easily processed material, strong, flexible, waterproof, not clear but translucent, soften at 140oC. Commonly used for honey, yoghurt container, plastic bags and thin plastics. Direct contact with food is not recommended.
- Polypropylene (PP)
The characteristic of this type is commonly transparent but not clear or cloudy, hard but flexible, strong, waxy surface, chemical, heat and oil proof, soften at 140oC.
- Polystyrene (PS)
There are 2 types of PS, the rigid and the soft (foam) one. The rigid one usually as clear as glass, easily affected by fat and other solvents (like alcohol), easily formed, soften at 95oC, for example: clear plastic container for food. While the soft one looks like foam, commonly white, easily affected by fat and other solvents (like alcohol), can release styrene if contacted with food, for example: Styrofoam. It is usually disposable and not recommended for microwave usage.
- Others (Polycarbonate, bio-based plastic, co-polyester, acrylic, polyamide and mixed plastic).
Hard, clear and thermally stable. Polycarbonate material could release Bisphenol-A (BPA) to food that could damage the hormone system. Commonly used for water gallon, milk bottle, baby feeding set. For sterilizing milk bottle, it is recommended to soak the baby bottle in the boiling water instead of boiling it. Choose the clear gallon instead of dark or green one. The cracked bottle should not be used again.
[BPOM] Badan Pengawas Obat dan Makanan. 2019. Peraturan Kepala BPOM RI No. 20 Tahun 2019 tentang Kemasan Pangan.
[BPOM] Badan Pengawas Obat dan Makanan. 2019. Pemilihan Jenis kemasan Plastik yang Tepat. Booklet.
Peraturan Menteri Perindustrian Republik Indonesia tentang Pencantuman Logo Tara Pangan dan Kode Daur Ulang pada Kemasan Pangan dari Plastik nomor 24/M-IND/PER/2/2010.