Interesting Facts about Chocolate Milk

Chocolate-Chocolate-Milk

Chocolate milk is one of the most favorite milk flavor, for both kids and adults. Enjoyment of milk combined with a delicious chocolate flavor is one reason why this product is highly preferred. Almost all types of milk on the market, whether it is liquid milk, milk powder and sweetened condensed milk has a chocolate variant.

The must-have elements that are always present in chocolate milk for household and food services (such as restaurants and cafes) are milk, chocolate and sugar. But for the industrial scale, there are some other materials that are needed in addition to third base material earlier. Here are the details:
1. Milk
Milk used in the manufacture of chocolate milk can be liquid milk, milk powder and condensed milk. Liquid milk used can be derived from fresh milk, reconstituted milk or recombined milk . Milk powder is also commonly used in the manufacturing process, particularly for the standardization of fat and protein content of milk chocolate to conform to the standards and labeling of the chocolate milk. Types of milk powder commonly used in the manufacture of chocolate milk is quite varied , whether it be full cream milk (whole milk powder) , buttermilk or MSNF (milk solid non fat) such as skimmed milk powder, whey permeate, or whey protein concentrate. Milk chocolate also can be made by mixing water or milk with chocolate variant of sweetened condensed milk.
2. Chocolate
All kinds of chocolate are obtained from the cocoa beans (Potter and Hotchkiss, 1995). There are various types of chocolate that can be used for the chocolate milk. In addition to the type of chocolate in the form of powder (cocoa powder), dark chocolate in liquid (cocoa liquor) is also commonly used in the manufacture of chocolate milk.
3. Sugar
Sugar is needed in chocolate milk to give a sweet taste & to cover or at least reduce the bitterness of chocolate. The most common type of sugar used for milk chocolate is sucrose, while the milk itself also naturally contains lactose (milk sugar). There are also chocolate milk products that use other types of sugars such as fructose and isomaltulose.
4. Fats & Oils
Types of fats and oils that are added in milk chocolate products can be derived from milk fat and vegetable oil. The addition of fats and oils is commonly done to standardize the fat content in milk chocolate. Vegetable oil is also generally used in sweetened condensed milk chocolate formula.
5. Starch
Addition of starch is sometimes done on chocolate milk product for standardization of fat and protein. Hydrolysis of starch products such as maltodextrin is also sometimes used in dairy products such as chocolate sweetened condensed milk for standardization, as a filler and also for a mixture of vitamins and minerals premix
6. Stabilizer
The stabilizer is needed to stabilize the emulsion, preventing fat separation & sedimentation and control mouthfeel and the viscosity of chocolate milk. This material is especially necessary in the industrial manufacture of chocolate milk in containers because of the risk of sedimentation and separation may increase during storage. Stabilizer is also have other functions such as an emulsifier, thickener, volume enhancer & gel maker. In BPOM Chief Regulation No. 24 in 2013 , there are many types of stabilizers that can be used in chocolate milk products, such as carrageenan, guar gum , CMC (carboxymethylcelullose), MCC (microcrystallinecelullose), and so on.
7. Flavor
Although the chocolate itself has a distinctive taste, but sometimes additional flavor is needed to ensure the taste consistency of the milk chocolate produced. Beside chocolate flavor, other flavors were also commonly used in milk chocolate, such as vanilla, malt, cookies & cream flavor, etc. According to Health Minister Regulation No. 033/2012, Flavors that used may be natural, nature identical or artificial.
8. Natural & artificial sweeteners
Although not many, there are some chocolate milk products that use sweeteners other than sugar, whether natural or artificial. Generally, chocolate milk products that use non – sugar sweeteners are kind of diet products because this type products need to reduce total calorie with lower sugar levels so that natural or artificial sweeteners are necessary to neutralize the bitterness of chocolate. According to the Head of BPOM Regulation No. 4/2014, the following are types of sweeteners permitted to be usde in milk chocolate :
– Natural sweeteners: sorbitol, mannitol, isomaltitol, glycoside steviol, maltitol dan lactitol, xylitol, erytritol
– Artificial sweeteners: acesulfam-K, aspartame, cyclamate, saccharine, sucralose dan neotam
9. Vitamins dan Minerals
Vitamins and minerals are generally only added to milk chocolate manufactured by the industry. Although milk is naturally rich in vitamins and minerals, but this addition is sometimes still needed because there are some vitamins and minerals that are lost in the processing of chocolate milk, especially during heat treatment. The addition is also useful to ensure` the content in the product is in conformity with the nutrition facts in the label. Vitamins and minerals are added in the milk chocolate product can be either a single or mixed (premix). In milk chocolate powder, premix of vitamins and minerals can be added by dry blending with other materials. Calcium milk and salt also included in the type of mineral that is commonly used in the manufacture of chocolate milk. In addition to functioning as a source of minerals, salts can also help improve the taste of milk chocolate.

In processing & storage of chocolate milk, there might be some problems occur. Here are the typical problems that commonly happen & how to solve them:
– Chocolate sedimentation
This is the most common problems encountered in milk chocolate. It is generally caused by the use of stabilizers that are less precise, in terms of type, quantity & method of mixing.
How to solve: increase the percentage of stabilizer for chocolate milk, or change its type & optimize the mixing method. Once finished, do the accelerated shelf life test to see how far the chocolate milk can be stable during storage time.
– Fat separation
The cause of the separation of fat is not much different from the causes of sedimentation which is the lack of stabilizer used or the wrong type of stabilizer. The suboptimal homogenization process can also be the cause. Storage time is also affects, because the longer the product of chocolate milk is stored, the greater the potential for fat separation.

How to solve: increase the percentage of stabilizer used in milk chocolate, or change its type. Optimize the homogenization process of milk chocolate. After that do the accelerated shelf life test to see if chocolate milk may be stable during storage.
– Gelling
Contrary to chocolate sedimentation or fat separation, thickening/gelling precisely due to the excessive amount of stabilizer. Proper viscosity levels will increase the mouth feel of chocolate milk and favored by consumers, but if excessive due to the thickening / gelling is generally not preferred by consumers. Some consumers may even think that the thickening occurs due to microbial contamination in spoiled chocolate milk, even though it is still safe for consumption.
How to solve: Reduce the percentage of stabilizer in milk chocolate, but ensure this decrease does not cause sedimentation or separation. Perform accelerated shelf life test to confirm.
– Taste inconsistency
Sometimes in the market, we found milk chocolate with the same brand, but the taste is less consistent between batches. Or if you go to a restaurant / café, it is a common to have chocolate milk that have different taste compared to one that bought earlier.
How to solve: Follow the SOP (Standard Operating Procedure) which has been established to produce chocolate milk, on an industrial scale as well as in the household and catering services. Use the same suppliers of raw materials, especially for chocolate source (cocoa powder or cocoa liquor) and flavor. If you want to change suppliers, do sensory analysis (usually a triangle test) to ensure that there was no significant difference in terms of organoleptic between milk chocolate that use raw materials from old vs. new suppliers.
– Decrease in pH
According to SNI (Indonesian National Standard) of fresh milk, normal pH of milk is around 6.3 – 6.8. Milk proteins are highly sensitive to pH decrease & pH of chocolate (cocoa powder or cocoa liquor) used in the manufacture of chocolate milk also affects the pH of the end-product of chocolate milk. The decrease of Milk pH usually will increase the milk viscosity. Generally, a decrease in pH and the sourness that were detected in dairy products (which is not fermented milk such as yoghurt) caused by microbiological contamination. This contamination can be caused by many things, such as less hermetic packaging, heat treatment and processing that are less than optimum, poor sanitation or too high initial microbial levels in raw materials that affect the outcome of chocolate milk products
How to solve: Determine the exact specifications for each of the raw materials used and make sure the entire production process of chocolate milk are done by GMP (Good Manufacturing Practices)

Here are some tips for making the best chocolate milk:
– Use the best source of raw materials used for chocolate milk & set the specification. It will be better to do audit before picking any suppliers.
– Maintain the hygiene of raw materials & tools used to make the chocolate milk. Not only hazard, the contamination could also affect the quality & taste of chocolate milk.
– Do the sensory analysis for the several product prototypes using various ratio of milk/cocoa/sugar. The most preferred prototype product that has the highest overall liking score will be the one that served to the consumers in the particular café or restaurants.
– Continuous improvement. Take the input from customers to create a better product than the previous one.

 

 

References:

Peraturan Kepala BPOM RI No. 4 tahun 2014 tentang Batas Maksimum Penggunaan Bahan Tambahan Pangan Pemanis.

Peraturan Kepala BPOM RI No. 24 tahun 2013 tentang Batas Maksimum Penggunaan Bahan Tambahan Pangan Penstabil.

Peraturan Menteri Kesehatan RI No. 033 tahun 2012 tentang Bahan Tambahan Pangan.

Potter, N. N. Hotchkiss, J. H. 1995. Food Science. 5th edition. Chapman & Hall, USA.

SNI 3141.1: 2011. Standar Nasional Indonesia Susu Segar Bagian 1: Sapi.

Zulkarnain, M. R. 2016. Fakta Menarik di balik Lezatnya Susu Cokelat. Kulinologi Indonesia, Februari 2016 edition (p.16-21).