Glossary

ADH (Antidiuretic Hormone)

A hormone that helps to concentrate urine during the night.

 

ADHD

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder; a group of behavioural symptoms that include inattentiveness, hyperactivity & impulsiveness.

 

AKG (Angka Kecukupan Gizi)

Indonesian term for RDA (Recommended Daily Allowance)

 

Aldosterone

A hormone secreted by the adrenal glands that is important for maintaining salt and water balance in the body; Adrenal mineralocorticoid hormone; causes retention of sodium (Na+) and excretion of unwanted potassium (K+) and hydrogen (H+) ions via urine.

 

Allergens

The antigens involved in allergic reactions.

 

Angioedema

An allergic skin disease characterized by patches of confined swelling involving the skin the layers beneath the skin, the mucous membranes, and sometimes the viscera (internal organs).

 

ANP (Atrial Natriuretic Peptide)

A hormone involved in natriuresis and the regulation of renal and cardiovascular homeostasis. It is synthesized as a prohormone in the granules of the myocytes of the atrium and is released into the circulation in response to atrial dilation or increased intravascular fluid volume. It causes natriuresis, diuresis, and renal vasodilation; reduces circulating concentrations of renin, aldosterone, and antidiuretic hormone; and thereby normalizes circulating blood pressure and volume.

 

ASI (Air Susu Ibu)

Indonesian term for Breastmilk

 

BPOM (Badan Pengawas Obat & Makanan)

Indonesian FDA (Food & Drugs Administration)

 

Dysrhytmias

An abnormal cardiac rhythm.

 

Eczema

A term for a group of medical conditions that cause the skin to become inflamed or irritated.

 

Erythema

Redness of the skin or mucous membranes, caused by hyperemia (the increase of blood flow to different tissues in the body) of superficial capillaries.

 

Essential Fat

The minimum amount of fat necessary for basic physical and physiological health.

 

GI

Gastrointestinal; anything related to digestive system.

 

GFR (Glomerular Filtration Rate)

The volume of water filtered out of the plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman’s capsules per unit of time; A kidney function test in which results are determined from the amount of ultrafiltrate formed by plasma flowing through the glomeruli of the kidney. The amount is calculated from inulin and creatinine clearance, serum creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen.

 

Heiner Syndrome

An infant’s failure to thrive due to serum antibodies in cow’s milk.

 

Hyponatremia

Hyponatremia occurs when sodium falls below 130 mM (the normal concentration of sodium in the blood plasma is 136-145 mM). Plasma sodium levels of 125 mM or less are dangerous and can result in seizures and coma.

 

Immunoglobulin E (IgE)

A class of antibody that has been found only in mammals, with the main function is immunity to parasites. IgE also plays an essential role in hypersensitivity, which manifests various allergic diseases, such as allergic asthma, most types of sinusitis, allergic rhinitis, chronic urticaria, atopic dermatitis & food allergy.

Incontinence

Inability to control excretory function

Infant

Term used for baby under 1 year old

 

MPASI (Makanan Pendamping ASI)

Indonesian term for Solid Baby Food

 

MUFAs (Monounsaturated Fatty Acids)

Fatty acids that have one double-bonded, or unsaturated carbon atom. The form is liquid at room temperature but turn solid when chilled. Eating MUFA instead of saturated fats or trans fat can lower the cholesterol levels & reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. MUFAs are also high in vitamin E that also functioned as antioxidant that keeps the body healthy & protecting cells from damage. The examples of MUFAs are: oleic acid (C18:1) & erucic acid (C22:1).

 

Oligohydramnios

Deficiency in amount of amniotic fluid.

 

Omega-3 Fatty Acid

A fatty acid with the first double bond located at the 3rd carbon from the methyl end. Play a role in normal growth & development and proper brain function. It also anti-inflammatory & reduce the risk of chronic disease (such as: heart disease, arthritis & cancer). The examples of omega-3 fatty acids are: ALA (α-linolenic-acid; C18:3 ω-3), EPA (eicosapentaenoic-acid; C20:5 ω-3), DHA (docosahexanoic-acid;C22:6 ω-3).

 

Omega-6 Fatty Acid

A fatty acid with the first double bond located at the 6th carbon from the methyl end. Like omega-3, play a role in normal growth & development and proper brain function, with additional function to regulate metabolism, stimulate hair growth & keep the reproductive system healthy. But unlike omega-3, it is pro-inflammatory. Need to consume a balance of both types (omega-3 & omega-6 ) fatty acids to stay healthy. The optimal ratio of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids has been estimated to be 2:1 to 3:1. The examples of omega-6 fatty acids are LA (linoleic acids; C18:2 ω-6) & ARA (arachidonic acid; C20:4 ω-6).

 

Otitis Media

An infection of the middle ear space, behind the eardrum (tympanic membrane). It is characterized by pain, dizziness, and partial loss of hearing.

 

Permenkes (Peraturan Menteri Kesehatan)

Regulation from Indonesian Ministry of Health

 

Protein-Losing Enteropathy

Refers to any condition of GI tract that results in a net loss of protein from the body.

 

Pruritus

Itch; a sensation that causes the desire or reflex to scratch.

 

PUFAs (Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids)

Fatty acids that have more than one double-bonded, or unsaturated carbon atom. The form is remaining liquid at both room temperature or chilled. PUFAs can be divided into 2 categories: omega-6 & omega-3 fatty acids.

 

RDA (Recommended Daily Allowance)

Quantities of nutrients in the diet that are required to maintain good health in people. RDAs are established by the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Sciences, and may be revised every few years. A separate RDA value exists for each nutrient. The RDA values refer to the amount of nutrient expected to maintain good health in people. The actual amounts of each nutrient required to maintain good health in specific individuals differ from person to person.

 

SFA (Saturated Fatty Acid)

A fatty acid in which all available carbon binding sites are saturated with hydrogen (has no double bond). For examples: butyric acid (C4:0), lauric acid (C12:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (18:0)

 

Starch

Term used for various sources of complex carbohydrates, such as: various kinds of rice, potato, bread, corn, sweet potato, cereals, etc.

 

Thromboembolism

The blockage of a blood vessel by a thrombus carried through the bloodstream.

 

Toddler

Term used for kid 1-3 years old

 

Trans-Fatty Acid

A stereoisomer of the naturally occurring cis-fatty acid in which hydrogen is added back across the double bond, results from a hydrogenation process. It associated with increased risk of heart disease, cancer & other chronic disease.

 

Urolithiasis

A diseased condition marked by the formation of stones in the urinary tract.

 

Urticaria

Hives; a raised, itchy rash that appears on the skin.